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Accessible

by the WBDG Accessible Committee

Last updated: 09-18-2015

Overview

"We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men are created equal..."
- Declaration of Independence, July 4, 1776

In daily life, as we maneuver through society, nothing is more important yet taken for granted more often than access. For millions of people with disabilities, the access that most of us take for granted is difficult, impossible, or achievable only with the intervention of a third party. We live in what is considered an independent society, yet independent access to programs, facilities, and employment is not easily achievable by many. Physical access is historically the arbiter of success and the source of opportunity in education, employment, and social freedom. Thus, accessibility is a civil rights issue for many people with disabilities and for our society. See the History of Accessible Building Design to learn more.

Definition and Goals of Accessible Design

ADA and ABA Accessibility Guidelines

Illustration of the range of disabled people

(Courtesy of Bill Brack)

The U.S. Access Board issues accessibility guidelines under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and the Architectural Barriers Act (ABA). The Board's guidelines are the mandatory baseline for accessibility standards issued by other Federal agencies authorized to establish accessibility standards under the ADA or the ABA. Until the Board's guidelines are adopted by one or more of these standard-setting agencies, they are not enforceable.

In 2004, the Access Board updated its ADA and ABA Accessibility Guidelines and published them in a single document containing three parts. Part 1 contains application and scoping for ADA covered facilities; Part 2 contains application and scoping for ABA covered facilities; and, Part 3 contains technical requirements common to both the ADA and ABA.

Diagram showing ADA Scoping and Requirements Chapters 1-2 (Part 1) and the ABA Scoping and Requirement Chapters 1-2 (Part 2) with arrows pointing to shared Common Technical Chapters 3-10 (Part 3)

ABA Standards

Federally owned and leased buildings are subject to the ABA. Other buildings that are designed, constructed, altered, or leased with federal construction dollars may also be subject to the ABA. The U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), U.S. General Services Administration (GSA), U.S. Postal Service (USPS), and U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) are the ABA standard-setting agencies. DOD, GSA, and USPS adopted Parts 2 and 3 of the Access Board's guidelines, making them enforceable ABA Standards. HUD has not yet adopted the guidelines; consequently, non-military housing subject to the ABA must still comply with the Uniform Federal Accessibility Standards first issued in 1984. All currently applicable ABA standards are available online.

ADA Standards

The ADA Standards govern the construction and alteration of places of public accommodation, commercial facilities, state and local government facilities, and transportation facilities. The U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) and the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) establish the ADA Standards. Both agencies have adopted Parts 1 and 3 of the Access Board's guidelines. In their regulations DOJ and DOT included some additional requirements unique to facilities within their jurisdiction. DOJ's 2010 ADA Standards replaced the original 1991 ADA Standards and became effective on March 15, 2012. DOT's revised ADA Standards became effective in November, 2006. Both ADA Standards are available online.

For more information, contact the U.S. Access Board for guidance on the ABA or ADA standards currently in effect.

Housing Accessibility Guidelines

The Fair Housing Act

The Fair Housing Act (FHA) was passed in 1968 as Title VIII of the Civil Rights Act of 1968, prohibiting discrimination in the sale and rental of housing as well as other housing-related transactions. The Fair Housing Act was amended in 1988 to include protections for people with disabilities, requiring certain housing projects to meet a basic level of accessibility. In response, the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) adopted accessible design and construction guidelines to implement the accessibility requirements of the FHA. The guidelines apply to "covered" multifamily dwellings with four or more units designed and constructed for first occupancy after March 13, 1991.

Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973

Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (Section 504) is a federal accessibility law which seeks to prevent discrimination, based on disability, under any program or activity receiving financial assistance from any federal agency, including the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). Section 504 requires newly constructed multifamily dwellings with five or more units, and alterations of housing facilities in HUD-assisted programs to meet the Uniform Federal Accessibility Standards (UFAS). The UFAS Standards are available online.

For more information, contact HUD for guidance on the FHA or Section 504 standards currently in effect.

Principles and a process that support accessible design include:

Laws, Codes, and Standards

  • Know what laws apply and which standards they reference:
    • Project developer (government vs. private entity)
    • Project use (residential, retail, office, etc.)
    • Funding sources (public vs. private)
    • Building type (new construction vs. renovation)
    • Housing type (Single family vs. multifamily)
    • Housing ownership (Condo vs. rental)

Planning for Access

Successful integration of accessible design into the whole design process requires careful consideration of potentially conflicting goals for a project at its earliest stages. The design team must identify conflicts as well as synergies in order to meet project challenges. Sustainability, historic preservation, safety/security, and aesthetics can be problematic for accessibility. The following are a few examples:

  • A new city courthouse has lowered office and corridor lighting power density levels (mandated by local energy code requirements to reduce energy consumption). Persons with low vision, public and staff, are adversely affected by the requirements because they require brighter lighting to facilitate functioning in the spaces.

  • A parking lot for a new state office building is designed with pervious pavers to meet sustainability goals. The pavers have openings of 5/8". The pavers located along the accessible route to the building violate the accessibility standard, which requires a maximum opening of 1/2".

  • A historic Federal building has a monumental entrance raised 5'-0" above grade and accessed only by stairs. The State Historic Preservation Officer has determined that altering the entrance to include a wheelchair ramp would destroy historic fabric and irreparably damage the building. GSA's accessibility standard provides an exception that allows the use of an alternative entrance in this case in order to provide access, although persons with disabilities will not be able to enter the building through the main entrance.

  • A new Federal courthouse has 4'-0" x 4'-0" security planters installed at the perimeter of the site. The planters are spaced 2'-10" apart and cross the accessible route into the building. The planters are in violation of GSA's accessibility standard, which requires a minimum clearance of 3'-0" between the planters crossing the accessible route.

  • An architect has designed a performing arts center on a steeply sloping site. The entrance location requires persons on foot to negotiate a 10'-0' downhill change in level from the street, where there is public transportation available. The architect has designed a series of landscaped terraces and stairs to get from street level to the plaza in front of the entrance, but has not included ramps because they would "compromise" his design. Instead, he uses an enclosed elevator for disabled persons. Two months after the center opens, the elevator has mechanical problems and is out of service.

Identifying potential conflicts at the conceptual level of a project in an integrated design team environment can avoid problems and conflicts such the examples cited and result in a thoughtful and successful project for all of the stakeholders.

  • Planning for access into the facility
    • Plan the location of accessible entrances and facility access points when positioning buildings on sites to:
      • Limit travel distances for people with disabilities from site arrival points, such as public sidewalks, public transportation stops, and parking, to accessible building and facility entrances.
      • Provide accessible routes which require low-effort. Where ever possible, provide walks with no more than 1:20 running slope over ramps. When ramps are required design ramps with lower running slopes and not at the maximum permitted 1:12 permitted.
      • Provide equivalent access and travel options to those provided for people without disabilities.
      • Provide equivalent, safe, easy, and compliant access into the facility while maximizing security.
  • Planning for access to spaces within the facility
    • Plan the layout of facility spaces to best accommodate all persons, including people with disabilities, such as:
      • Layout spaces whenever possible to limit travel distance between elements within the space.
      • Group and centralize spaces to limit the amount of travel required between the spaces. For instance, in a residential garden style apartment complex, centrally locating the swimming pool and associated amentias is preferred to locating the swimming pool and amenities at one end of the site.
      • Limit the need for travel between levels and the reliance on elevators and lifts, if possible. Although, obviously not an option between stories of high-rise buildings, limiting the need for vertical access on sites and within one and two story facilities and between intermediate levels of high-rise facilities reduces the likelihood of interruptions in the accessible routes, due to elevator/lift malfunctions, and limits the need to install ramps. Where vertical access is required between two levels, ramps designed at low grade, are an option to permit guaranteed access. Ramps can often be creatively integrated into designs without negatively impacting the aesthetics. For instance, integrating ramped access into a swimming pool can avoid the need to install an industrial looking pool lift which can clearly stand out from the overall design.
      • Choose lighting options which accommodate people with low-vision.

Provide Equal Access and Flexibiity

Accessible design benefits all of us at some point in our lives. The goal of accessible design is to provide equal use of the built environment for all people.

Beyond Accessibility to Universal Design

Being proactive by planning for flexible design features and products will increase the likelihood of providing equal access over the life cycle of the facility.

Note: Information in these Accessible pages must be considered together with other design objectives and within a total project context in order to achieve quality, high-performance buildings.

Emerging Issues

Accessibility Standards

ADA

The following standard-setting agencies have published their new ADA standards, consistent with the updated ADA guidelines:

  • The U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) published the "ADA Standards for Transportation Facilities" in the Federal Register in October 2006, effective for all new design, construction and alterations on November 29, 2006.
  • The U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) published the "2010 ADA Standards for Accessible Design" in the Federal Register in September 2010, effective for all new design, construction and alterations except transportation facilities on March 15, 2012.

ABA

The following three standard-setting agencies* have published their new ABA standards, consistent with the updated ABA guidelines:

  • The U.S. Postal Service (USPS) published the "USPS Standards for Facility Accessibility" in the Federal Register in May 2005, effective for all owned and leased facilities on October 1, 2005.
  • The U.S. General Services Administration (GSA) published the "ABA Accessibility Standard" in the Federal Register in November 2005, effective for all new design, construction and alterations of GSA owned buildings on May 9, 2006, all lease-construction on June 30, 2006 and all other leases on February 7, 2007.
  • The Department of Defense (DOD) adopted the "ABA Accessibility Standard for Department of Defense Facilities" by memorandum dated October 31, 2008, effective for all new design, construction and alterations on October 31, 2008.

* The Department of Housing and Urban Development has not yet adopted its new ABA accessibility standard, and is still using the Uniform Federal Accessibility Standards (UFAS).

For more information, contact the U.S. Access Board for a guide to ADA and ABA Accessibility Guidelines and the online versions of the current ADA and ABA accessibility standards in effect for the standard-setting Federal agencies.

Building Information Modeling

A Building Information Model (BIM) is a digital representation of physical and functional characteristics of a facility. As such, it serves as a shared knowledge resource for information about a facility forming a reliable basis for decisions during its life cycle from inception onward. BIM has the potential to truly integrate accessibility into a project by considering accessibility early and throughout all phases of the project.

Wheeled Anthropometry

Anthropometry is the study of the dimensions and abilities of the human body. The IDeA Center in Buffalo started a major long-range program to establish a database on the anthropometry of wheeled mobility in 1999. This program was initiated as part of the Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center on Universal Design at Buffalo. The U.S. Access Board also began supporting the effort in 2001. A final report on Anthropometry of Wheeled Mobility Project is now available. Click here to download document.

Accessible Design and the Relationship to Sustainable Design

Whole building design must consider the relationship between accessible and sustainable design. Simply put, buildings which are not designed to be accessible are not sustainable. A sustainable building is sensitive to the environment and to its users. Designing buildings for equitable use by the greatest number of people can be achieved by complying with regulatory accessibility requirements, incorporating Universal Design and Visitability concepts, and including adaptable design features.

For some time now, federal, state, and local laws and codes have required accessible design in most building types. When required accessibility is not incorporated at the onset of design or during construction, the risk of complaints of non-compliance and even litigation exists. The result could include required retrofits. Retrofitting buildings due to lack of accessibility compliance, which can create unnecessary waste and energy, is not consistent with the goals of sustainability.

Photo of faucet with automatic activation and shut-off feature

Automatic lighting and fixture controls are a win-win for both sustainability and accessibility.

Sustainability and accessibility are intrinsically linked in the design process. For example, when locating buildings on a site to optimize solar orientation, accessibility of the building entrance(s) must be taken into consideration. Will optimal solar orientation create a condition that results in building entrances which are located on a circuitous route from site arrival points? Accessibility must also be considered when selecting sustainable building materials. For example, pervious pavers may be specified to increase water infiltration, but if the installation of the pavers results in wide spaces between them or an unstable ground surface, then accessibility is not achieved.

Design of the 'whole building' concept: The High-Performance Building is centered and surrounded by the Intergrated Team Process and the Integrated Design Approach; in the outer ring are the design objectives - Accessible, Aethetics, Cost-Effective, Functional/Operational, Historic Preservation, Productive, Secure/Safe and Sustainable

Whole building design requires a balanced and integrated approach to all the design objectives, including accessibility.

Classroom Acoustics

Acoustical performance is an important consideration in the design of classrooms. Research indicates that levels of background noise and reverberation, little noticed by adults, adversely affect learning environments for young children, who require optimal conditions for hearing and comprehension. Poor classroom acoustics are an additional educational barrier for children who have hearing loss and those who use cochlear implants, since assistive technologies amplify both wanted and unwanted sound. Children who have temporary hearing loss, who may comprise up to 15% of the school age population according to the Centers for Disease Control, are also significantly affected, as are children who have speech impairments or learning disabilities. Kids whose home language is different than the teaching language are also at additional risk of educational delay and failure. For more information, see the U.S. Access Board's site on classroom acoustics.

Lighting Levels and Low Vision

The Low Vision Design Committee (LVDC) of NIBS recognizes that the needs of all occupants of the built environment, including those with low vision, should have adequate lighting levels. Through improvements in designs and operational procedures for new and existing facilities the committee is working to develop standards that will enhance the function, safety, and quality of life. The LVDP was formed to organize activities that would support four major needs identified.

  • Designers need a better understanding low vision persons' needs
  • Clinicians need a better understanding lighting and accessibility
  • Everyone needs a common vocabulary
  • Standards need to balance reduced energy consumption and adequate illumination for all building users.

21st Century Work Space

The high cost of office space in many urban areas, shrinking budgets for space, the use of telework, flexible work scheduling, hoteling and virtual work, and new technologies such as teleconferencing, web casting, telepresence, virtual phones, and Webex have moved designers to plan downsized office space where the number of work stations is significantly lower than the number of employees in order to maximize the use of space, whether owned or leased. In this arrangement, managers and employees share the same work space and there are no private offices. A docking station for a laptop computer and single or double monitors are provided at each work station. There are no desktop computers, so each person must bring their laptop computer with them on an office day. There are also no reception counters or spaces. Common "break rooms" contain cabinets, counters, refrigerators and microwave ovens that may be shared by multiple organizations. Common shared printers are kept to a minimum, and there are no individual printers. There are also communal coat closets adjacent to the work space for coats, umbrellas, etc.

GSA, a Federal agency, is using a system known as "Bookit" for employees to reserve work stations in this new type of work environment. Employees can reserve their work space for a maximum of two weeks in advance, and there is no guarantee that they will get the same work station even on two consecutive days. Work stations are reserved for an hour from the check-in time on each reservation day. When employees arrive, they notify the "Bookit " system so that the space cannot be taken by another person. Small individual lockers with electronic combination locks hold valuables and essential items. Common storage space such as lateral files are limited but available for program files and documents required for employees to do their jobs. There are also "touchdown stations" that are not subject to the "Bookit" system which can be used by employees who do not book their workstations in advance because of lack of availability or because they are only in the office for part of a work day. Private telephone conversations and small meetings are accommodated in small glass enclosed rooms with tables and three or four chairs, adjacent to the common work space. These rooms are used on an ad hoc basis. Larger conference rooms are also managed through the "Bookit" system and do not belong to any specific organizational entity, so it is possible that larger meetings may take place in other locations than where the specific organizational space is located.

Employees with disabilities who require special assistive technology, as well as certain employees who use a large amount of technology required for their jobs that is not portable require special consideration and exceptions to the general way the space is utilized, and are provided with dedicated work stations. However, because persons with certain disabilities require provisions such as higher light levels and significant glare reduction, audio amplification, etc., the commonly shared office space could prove to be an obstacle for them even though they have dedicated work stations. (See also Changing Nature of Organizations, Work, and Workplace.)

Relevant Codes, Standards, and Guidelines

ADA and ABA Accessibility Guidelines

The U.S. Access Board's guidelines issued under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and the Architectural Barriers Act (ABA) have been completely updated and revised. The updated guidelines were published as a final rule in the Federal Register in July of 2004. The guidelines under both laws have been combined into one document entitled Americans with Disabilities Act and Architectural Barriers Act Accessibility Guidelines that contains three parts: a scoping document for ADA facilities, a scoping document for ABA facilities, and a common set of technical criteria that the scoping sections reference. As a result, the requirements for both ADA and ABA facilities are now more consistent.

Codes and Standards

Guidelines

Laws

Major Resources

WBDG

Aesthetics, Cost-Effective, Functional / Operational, Historic Preservation—Provide Accessibility for Historic Buildings, Productive, Secure / Safe, Sustainable

Federal Mandates, Legislation, etc.

Organizations

Federal Agencies

The major resource for guidance on accessible design is the U.S. Access Board (Access Board). The Access Board is an independent federal agency devoted to accessibility for people with disabilities. Key responsibilities of the Board include developing and maintaining accessibility requirements for the built environment, transit vehicles, telecommunications equipment, and electronic and information technology; providing technical assistance and training on these guidelines; and enforcing accessibility standards for federally funded facilities. For additional resources, see the Access Board's Links Page.

Publications

  • The 1995 Accessible Building Product Guide by John P.S. Salmen and Julie Quarve-Peterson. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1995.
  • Access by Design by George A. Covington and Bruce Hannah. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1996.
  • The Accessibility Checklist—User's Guide by Susan Goltsman, ASLA, Timothy A. Gilbert, ASLA and Wohlford, Steven D. Berkeley, CA: MIG Communications, 1992.
  • The Accessible Housing Design File by Barrier Free Environments, Inc. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2010.
  • The ADA Answer Book by Building Owners and Managers Association International (BOMA). 1992.

Others

  • Building Research Information Knowledgebase (BRIK)—an interactive portal offering online access to peer-reviewed research projects and case studies in all facets of building, from predesign, design, and construction through occupancy and reuse.

Training