- Achieving Sustainable Site Design through Low Impact Development Practices
- Aesthetic Challenges
- Aesthetic Opportunities
- Balancing Security/Safety and Sustainability Objectives
- Biomimicry: Designing to Model Nature
- Building Enclosure Design Principles and Strategies
- Building Materials and Furnishings Sustainability Assessment Standards
- Building Science Concepts
- Construction Waste Management
- Energy Analysis Tools
- Energy Efficient Lighting
- Evaluating and Selecting Green Products
- Facility Performance Evaluation (FPE)
- Fuel Cell Flexibility and Sustainability
- Geothermal Heat Pumps
- Green Building Standards and Certification Systems
- Green Principles for Residential Design
- Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Federal Buildings
- Life-Cycle Cost Analysis (LCCA)
- Low Impact Development Technologies
- Measuring Performance of Sustainable Buildings
- Mitigating Insurance Risks through Sustainability
- Net Zero Energy Buildings
- Planning and Conducting Integrated Design (ID) Charrettes
- Psychosocial Value of Space
- Retrofitting Existing Buildings to Improve Sustainability and Energy Performance
- Solar Water Heating
- Sun Control and Shading Devices
- Sustainability of the Building Envelope
- Sustainable Historic Preservation
- Sustainable Laboratory Design
- Sustainable O&M Practices
- Water Conservation
Last updated: 08-25-2014
Building construction and operations can have extensive direct and indirect impacts on the environment, society, and economy, which are commonly referred to as the 3 P's ('People', 'Planet', 'Pocketbook'). The field of sustainable design seeks to balance the needs of these areas by using an integrated approach to create win-win-win design solutions.
The main objectives of sustainable design are to reduce, or completely avoid, depletion of critical resources like energy, water, and raw materials; prevent environmental degradation caused by facilities and infrastructure throughout their life cycle; and create built environments that are livable, comfortable, safe, and productive.
Buildings use resources (energy, water, raw materials, and etc.), generate waste (occupant, construction and demolition), and emit potentially harmful atmospheric emissions. Building owners, designers, and builders face a unique challenge to meet demands for new and renovated facilities that are accessible, secure, healthy, and productive while minimizing their impact on society, the environment, and the economy. Ideally, building designs should result in net positive benefits to all three areas.
In addition to including sustainable design concepts in new construction, sustainable design advocates commonly encourage retrofitting existing buildings rather than building anew. Retrofitting an existing building can often be more cost-effective than building a new facility. Designing major renovations and retrofits for existing buildings to include sustainable design attributes reduces operation costs and environmental impacts, and can increase building resiliency. The embodied energy of the existing building, a term expressing the cost of resources in both human labor and materials consumed during the building's construction and use, are squandered when the building is allowed to decay or be demolished.
Source: EPA, 2004
While the definition of sustainable building design is constantly changing, six fundamental principles persist.
Optimize Site Potential
Creating sustainable buildings starts with proper site selection, including consideration of the reuse or rehabilitation of existing buildings. The location, orientation, and landscaping of a building affect local ecosystems, transportation methods, and energy use. It is important to incorporate smart growth principles into the project development process, whether the project is a single building, campus, or military base. Siting for physical security is a critical issue in optimizing site design, including locations of access roads, parking, vehicle barriers, and perimeter lighting. Whether designing a new building or retrofitting an existing building, site design must integrate with sustainable design to achieve a successful project. The site of a sustainable building should reduce, control, and/or treat storm water runoff. If possible, strive to support native flora and fauna of the region in the landscape design.
Optimize Energy Use
With continually increasing demand on the world's fossil fuel resources, concerns for energy independence and security are increasing, and the impacts of global climate change are becoming more evident, it is essential to find ways to reduce energy load, increase efficiency, and maximize the use of renewable energy sources in federal facilities. Improving the energy performance of existing buildings is important to increasing our energy independence. Government and private sector organizations are increasingly committing to building and operating net zero energy buildings as a way to significantly reduce our dependence on fossil fuel-derived energy.
Protect and Conserve Water
In many parts of the country, fresh water is an increasingly scarce resource. A sustainable building should use water efficiently, and reuse or recycle water for on-site use, when feasible. The effort to bring drinkable water to our household faucets consumes enormous energy resources in pumping, transport, and treatment. Often potentially toxic chemicals are used to make water potable. The environmental and financial costs of sewage treatment are significant.
Optimize Building Space and Material Use
The world population continues to grow (to over 9 billion by 2050), natural resource use continues to increase, and the demand for additional goods and services stresses available resources. It is critical to achieve an integrated and intelligent use of materials that maximizes their value, prevents upstream pollution, and conserves resources. A sustainable building is designed and operated to use and reuse materials in the most productive and sustainable way across its entire life cycle. The materials used in a sustainable building minimize life-cycle environmental impacts such as global warming, resource depletion, and human toxicity. Environmentally preferable materials have a reduced effect on human health and the environment and contribute to improved worker safety and health, reduced liabilities, reduced disposal costs, and achievement of environmental goals.
Enhance Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ)
The indoor environmental quality (IEQ) of a building has a significant impact on occupant health, comfort, and productivity. Among other attributes, a sustainable building maximizes daylighting, has appropriate ventilation and moisture control, optimizes acoustic performance, and avoids the use of materials with high-VOC emissions. Principles of IEQ also emphasize occupant control over systems such as lighting and temperature.
Optimize Operational and Maintenance Practices
Considering a building's operating and maintenance issues during the preliminary design phase of a facility will contribute to improved working environments, higher productivity, reduced energy and resource costs, and prevented system failures. Encourage building operators and maintenance personnel to participate in the design and development phases to ensure optimal operations and maintenance of the building. Designers can specify materials and systems that simplify and reduce maintenance requirements; require less water, energy, and toxic chemicals and cleaners to maintain; and are cost-effective and reduce life-cycle costs. Additionally, design facilities to include meters in order to track the progress of sustainability initiatives, including reductions in energy and water use and waste generation, in the facility and on site.
EPA's New England Regional Laboratory (NERL) achieved a LEED Version 1.0 Gold rating. From conception the project was charged to "make use of the best commercially-available materials and technologies to minimize consumption of energy and resources and maximize use of natural, recycled and non-toxic materials." Chelmsford, MA
Building resiliency is the capacity of a building to continue to function and operate under extreme conditions, such as (but not limited to) extreme temperatures, sea level rise, natural disasters, etc. As the built environment faces the impending effects of global climate change, building owners, designers, and builders can design facilities to optimize building resiliency.
Building adaptability is the capacity of a building to be used for multiple uses and in multiple ways over the life of the building. For example, designing a building with movable walls/partitions allow for different users to change the space. Additionally, using sustainable design allows for a building to adapt to different environments and conditions.
Relevant Codes, Laws, and Standards
Codes and Laws
- Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA 2007)
- Energy Policy Act of 2005
- Executive Order 13423, "Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management"
- Executive Order 13514, "Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance"
- IGCC-2012 International Green Construction Code, International Code Council
- ASTM E2432 Standard Guide for the General Principles of Sustainability Relative to Building
- ASHRAE 189.1-2011 Standard for the Design of Green Buildings, except Low-Rise Residential Buildings
Building Types / Space Types
Information in these Sustainable pages must be considered together with other design objectives and within a total project context in order to achieve quality, high—performance buildings.
Products and Systems
- 01 10 00 (01100) Summary
- 01 30 00 (01300) Administrative Requirements
- 01 40 00 (01400) Quality Requirements
- 01 41 00 (01411) Regulatory Requirements
- 01 42 00 (01421) References
- 01 50 00 (01500) Temporary Facilities and Controls
- 01 74 19 (01351) Construction Waste Management
- 01 78 23 (01830) Operation and Maintenance Data
- 01 78 53 (01780) Sustainable Design Close-Out Documentation
- 01 79 11 (01821) Environmental Demonstration and Training
- 01 91 00 (01810) Commissioning
- Federal High Performance and Sustainable Buildings
- Executive Order 13423 Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management
- Executive Order 13514 Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance
- High Performance and Sustainable Buildings Guidance (PDF 193 KB)
- Department of Defense
- Department of Energy
- Building Technologies Program, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
- Commercial Building Initiative, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
- High Performance Buildings Database, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
- Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
- FEMP Sustainable Buildings and Campuses
- FEMP Interagency Sustainability Working Group
- Smart Communities Network—Green Buildings
- Department of Health and Human Services
- Department of State
- Department of Veterans Affairs
- Sustainable Design Manual May 2014 and website, Office of Construction and Facilities Management (CFM)
- Environmental Protection Agency
- General Services Administration
- Greening Federal Buildings website
- Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings
- Sustainable Design website
- Sustainable Development Program website, Office of Real Property—This website has links to tools, publications, presentations and videos developed by GSA to assist agencies in transforming the way they do business.
- Sustainability website
- Achieving High-Performance Federal Facilities: Strategies and Approaches for Transformational Change by the National Academies Press. 2011.
- Field Guide for Sustainable Construction by the Pentagon Renovation and Construction Program Office, Department of Defense. 2004.
- Green Building Certification System Review and Appendices by the U.S. General Services Administration. 2012.
- The Greenest Building: Quantifying the Environmental Value of Building Reuse (PDF 10.5 MB), National Trust for Historic Preservation
- Greening Federal Facilities Guide by U.S. Department of Energy. 2001.
- High Performance Federal Building Database
- Implementing Instructions—Sustainable Locations for Federal Facilities (PDF 490 KB) Council on Environmental Quality
- Innovative Workplace Strategies by U.S. General Services Administration, Office of Government-wide Policy, Office of Real Property. Dec 2003.
- Managing Your Environmental Responsibilities: A Planning Guide for Construction and Development by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2005.
- NASA Agency Sustainable Policy Handbook for Facilities. 2010.
- Natural Hazards and Sustainability for Residential Buildings FEMA P-798
- The New Sustainable Frontier: Principles of Sustainable Development by U.S. General Services Administration. 2009.
- Office of the Federal Environmental Executive
- Real Property Sustainable Development Guide by U.S. General Services Administration, Office of Government-wide Policy, Office of Real Property.
- Sustainability Matters (PDF 11.06 MB) by GSA
- Sustainable Critical Infrastructure Systems: A Framework for Meeting 21st Century Imperatives by the National Academies Press. 2009.
- Sustainable Building Rating Systems Summary
- Sustainable Development and Society (PDF 20.8 MB) by U.S. General Services Administration, Office of Government-wide Policy, Office of Real Property. Oct 2004.
- Organizations, States, and Universities
- Bridging the Gap: Fire Safety and Green Buildings - A Fire and Safety Guide to Green Construction by the National Association of State Fire Marshalls.
- Governor's Green Government Council, Commonwealth of Pennsylvania
- Harvard Green Labs program
- High Performance Building Guidelines (PDF 2.2 MB) by New York City Department of Design and Construction. April 1999.
- Minnesota Sustainable Design Guide by Regents of the University of Minnesota, Twin Cities Campus, College of Architecture and Landscape Architecture.
- UB High Performance Building Guidelines (PDF 35.9 MB) by the University at Buffalo, The State University of New York. 2004.
- Green Building Costs and Financial Benefits (PDF 531 KB) by Gregory H. Kats. 2003.
- Sustainable Federal Facilities: A Guide to Integrating Value Engineering, Life-Cycle Costing, and Sustainable Development by Federal Facilities Council. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2001.
- Magazines and E-Newsletters
- The Green Building Initiative (GBI)
- Institute for Sustainable Infrastructure
- Sustainable Buildings Industry Council (SBIC)
- U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC)
- ASTM International—A globally recognized leader in the development and delivery of international voluntary consensus standards. Today, some 12,000 ASTM standards are used around the world to improve product quality, enhance safety, facilitate market access and trade, and build consumer confidence.
- Austin Energy Green Building Program
- Building Green from Principle to Practice—Online resource created by the Natural Resources Defense Council guides building professionals through green building process, from putting together a business case to design, construction and marketing.
- Building Research Information Knowledgebase (BRIK)—an interactive portal offering online access to peer-reviewed research projects and case studies in all facets of building, from predesign, design, and construction through occupancy and reuse.
- FedCenter.gov—FedCenter, the Federal Facilities Environmental Stewardship and Compliance Assistance Center, is a collaborative effort between the Office of the Federal Environmental Executive (OFEE), the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Construction Engineering Research Laboratory, and the U.S. EPA Federal Facilities Enforcement Office. FedCenter replaces the previous FedSite as a one-stop source of environmental stewardship and compliance assistance information focused solely on the needs of federal government facilities.
- Green Building Advisor
- GSA Sustainable Facilities Tool (SFTool)—SFTool's immersive virtual environment addresses all your sustainability planning, designing and procurement needs.
- The Waste Reduction Model (WARM)—WARM calculates and totals life cycle GHG emissions avoided through alternative waste management practices (reduced, recycled, combusted, or composted) in comparison to a baseline scenario (landfilled) for various materials
- WBDG05 Daylighting Principles and Strategies for Sustainable Design
- WBDG06 Sustainable Roofing Design Considerations and Applications
- WBDG07 Defining, Evaluating, and Selecting Green Products
- WBDG09 High-Performance EIFS for Sustainable Construction
- WBDG12 Window and Glazing Design Strategies for Sustainable Design
- WBDG13 Strategies for Sustainable Historic Preservation
- WBDG17 Achieving Sustainable Site Design Through Low Impact Development Practices
- FEMP02 Planning an Energy Assessment for Federal Facilities
- FEMP03 Launching a Utility Energy Services Contract (UESC): Getting to Yes!
- FEMP04 Federal On-Site Renewable Power Purchase Agreements
- FEMP05 Advanced Electric Metering in Federal Facilities
- FEMP06 Managing Water Assessment in Federal Facilities
- FEMP07 Selecting, Implementing, and Funding Photovoltaic Systems in Federal Facilities
- FEMP08 Sustainable Institutional Change for Federal Facility Managers
- FEMP09 Sustainable Strategies for Existing Federal Facilities
- FEMPFTS19 Implementing Deep Retrofits: A Whole Building Approach