General Principles and Commitments
During a project's planning stage, identify local recycling and salvage operations that could process site related waste. Program the design to recycle or salvage at least 50 percent construction, demolition and land clearing waste, excluding soil, where markets or on-site recycling opportunities exist.
Disposing of construction and demolition (C&D) waste materials is usually a small part of a larger construction project or development. However, C&D waste management is becoming more problematic as the environmental and economic consequences are becoming more evident.
In 2003, the US EPA estimated roughly 164 million tons of C&D waste from buildings were generated in the US annually. Of this quantity, 9% was construction waste, 38% was renovation waste material, and 53% was demolition debris. C&D waste constitutes an estimated 25% to 40% of the national solid waste stream. Local jurisdictions may experience higher C&D debris burdens. For example, over half of Wisconsin's solid waste stream consists of C&D debris. Some Army installations' C&D waste constitutes 80% of their solid waste stream. Only 25-35% of C&D materials from buildings were estimated to be recycled. While recycling C&D materials may not be the norm, there is case study evidence to verify that salvage, reuse, and recycling is a viable alternatives to landfilling waste and debris materials, and can be accomplished within the practical, budget, and schedule constraints of a construction or demolition project. At some sites, demolition debris diversion of over 90% and construction waste diversion of over 75% are being achieved through salvage for reuse or resale, recycling, composting, and other diversion methods. These waste reduction levels are often being achieved at lower costs than if all materials are disposed in a landfill.
Salvaging and recycling C&D materials is not without challenges. Waste diversion should be incorporated into project objectives and requirements, not added as an afterthought. As schedule and budget constraints become fixed, there is less tolerance for additional materials salvage or recycling tasks under a perception that additional cost and time will be required. Hazardous materials such as Lead-based paint or asbestos may complicate reuse and recycling. Used materials and recycling services and outlets are not uniformly present in all regions of the US, and construction professionals may be unfamiliar with these capabilities. Also, certain C&D materials, such as steel or asphalt, can be recycled more cost effectively than others. None of these issues is insurmountable. C&D waste reduction must become a fundamental component of a project's development, and can be with some adjustments to conventional business practices.
Measure construction waste reduction and demolition debris diversion by weight. Calculate the reduction and diversion rate by dividing the quantity of materials diverted from the waste stream by the sum of the quantity of materials diverted from the waste stream plus the quantity of materials disposed of by landfilling. In other words, divide the quantity of materials diverted from the waste stream by the total potential waste or debris quantity if all materials were landfilled.
Diversion does not include using materials for landfill alternate daily cover on landfills or materials that are incinerated or used as fuel in waste-to-energy processes.
- Executive Order 13423, "Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management"
- US Army Assistant Chief of Staff for Installations Management Policy Memorandum "SUBJECT: Sustainable Management of Waste in Military Construction, Renovation, and Demolition Activities," Dated 06 February, 2006, requires all Army construction, renovation, and demolition projects to divert a minimum of 50% of the waste and debris, by weight.
Require the demolition or construction contractor to develop a C&D Waste Management Plan for all new construction, renovation, or demolition contracts. This allows the Contractor to identify their own salvage, reuse, and recycling services, and the types and quantities of materials that can reasonably be diverted from the waste stream within reasonable budget constraints. This allows the Owner (the Government agency in this case) to review and approve the plan prior to issuing a Notice to Proceed, and ensures the Contractor is putting forth a good faith effort to divert the maximum waste practical under the circumstances. Upon approval, the Owner monitors actual diversion performance to ensure compliance with the C&D Waste Management Plan as part of their overall Quality Assurance program.
Support the Contractor in achieving the specified C&D waste reduction goals. Compile sources of salvage, deconstruction, used building material resale outlets, recycling, and other services in the region. Provide these sources to the Contractor; and allow them to make the arrangements as appropriate for their operations and diversion requirements. Once compiled, this will serve as a source for the Owner's (Government agency's) continued use.
The Federal Green Construction Guide for Specifiers provides model guide spec language to assist agencies in meeting these requirements.
Model Contract and Specification Language
- Advanced Construction & Demolition Waste Management for Florida Builders, Center for Construction & Environment.
- Building Deconstruction and Material Reuse in Washington, D.C., HUD.
- A Builder's Guide to Reuse & Recycling, Alameda County.
- Construction &Demolition Recycling magazine
- Characterization of Building Related Construction & Demolition Debris in the United States (PDF), EPA.
- Deconstruction Training Manual; Waste Management Reuse & Recycling at Mather Field, CIWMB
- Guide for Construction Waste Management Plan and Specifications, Lake County IL.
- A Guide to Deconstruction, Deconstruction Institute.
- Implementing Deconstruction in Florida: Materials & Reuse Issues, Disassembly, Techniques, & Policy, Powell Center for Construction & Environment, University of Florida.
- A Report on the Feasibility of Deconstruction: An Investigation of Deconstruction Activity in Four Cities, HUD.
- State-by-State Recycled Materials Exchange Directories, EPA
- Individual Waste Reduction Model (iWARM), EPA—analysis of greenhouse gas and energy effects resulting from landfilling debris.
- WasteSpec, Triangle J Council.
- US Army Corps of Engineers Public Works Technical Bulletins (PWTB) on deconstruction and construction materials recycling:
- 200-1-17 Recycling Interior Finish Materials - Carpet and Ceiling Tiles
- 200-1-23 Guidance for the Reduction of Demolition Waste Through Reuse and Recycling
- 200-1-27 Reuse of Concrete Materials From Building Demolition
- 200-1-XX Characterizing Demolition Debris from WWII-era Wood Framed and Korean War-era Reinforced Concrete buildings (in editing, check TECHINFO website soon)
- 200-1-XX Diverting Demolition Debris in RCI Programs (in editing, check TECHINFO website soon)
- 420-49-30 Alternatives to Demolition for Facility Reduction
- 420-49-32 Selection of Methods for the Reduction, Reuse, and Recycling of Demolition Waste
- Estimating Market Value of Salvaged Materials at Military Installations
- Deconstruction of a house, Portland OR, 1996
- Deconstruction of a WWII-era warehouse building at The Presidio of San Francisco, CA, 1996
- Deconstruction of Riverdale Village apartments in Baltimore County, MD, 1997
- Deconstruction of eight WWII-era buildings at Fort Ord, CA, 1997
- Deconstruction of two WWII-era industrial buildings at Alameda Naval Air Station, CA, 1997
- Deconstruction of Stowe Village apartment units in Hartford CT, 1998
- Deconstruction of Ten Houses in Gainesville FL, 1999-2000
- Deconstruction Case studies compiled by US EPA
- C&D waste reduction projects compiled by WasteCap Wisconsin
- Deconstruction Case studies compiled by The Deconstruction Institute
- Deconstruction Case studies compiled by the Smart Growth Network
- Deconstruction case studies compiled by the California Integrated Waste Management Board
- Deconstruction case studies compiled by the Vermont Department of Environmental Conservation
- Deconstruction case studies compiled by King County, WA (see Session 6)
- Two case studies by The Reuse People, Oakland, CA
- Army case studies compiled on the DENIX system
- Salvage and recycling case studies compiled by the North Carolina Department of Natural Resources p2pays program
- Denver CO Habitat for Humanity Deconstruction Program
- Building Deconstruction Consortium
- Building Material Reuse Association (BMRA)
- California Integrated Waste Management Board (re: C&D debris)
- Construction Demolition Recycling Association
- Construction Waste Management resources compiled by Tool Base Services
- Controlled Demolition Inc.
- Deconstruction Institute
- EPA WasteWise
- EPA's Construction and Demolition Debris Program
- GSA Sustainable Facilities Tool (SFTool)—SFTool's immersive virtual environment addresses all your sustainability planning, designing and procurement needs.
- Institute for Local Self Reliance, Waste-to-Wealth Program
- King County WA, Solid Waste Division, Construction & Demolition Recycling
- The Loading Dock
- Mid-Atlantic Consortium of Recycling and Economic Development Officials
- National Demolition Association
- North Carolina Division of Pollution Prevention and Environmental Assistance
- Reuse Development Organization
- Recycled Materials Resource Center, University of New Hampshire
- USDA Forest Products Laboratory
- USACE Construction Engineering Research Laboratory (CERL)
- University of Florida Powell Center for Construction and Environment
- WasteCap Wisconsin