In ancient Roman times, the atrium was the central open area of a house, but today the term atrium is typically associated with commercial and public buildings including offices, health care facilities, libraries, hotels, courthouses, educational facilities, etc. The atrium space type includes glazed courtyard spaces and multistoried spaces. Atria are typically used as key architectural features in main entries, public circulation areas or as special destinations within a building. Atrium design often involves skylights and generous glazing areas that provide an infusion of natural light which make them prominent building areas well suited to serve ceremonial and social functions.
The atrium space type requires flexibility, durable finishes, attention to regular maintenance, and special HVAC systems and lighting. Typical features of atrium space types include the list of applicable design objectives elements as outlined below. For a complete list and definitions of the design objectives within the context of whole building design, click on the titles below.
Typical atrium spaces are large glazing areas on walls and roof.
- Include accessible elevators and ramps in addition to stairways.
- Design flexible space to accommodate accessibility needs and requirements, even as the use of the space changes.
- Highlight or soften the verticality of the space by delineating horizontal bands (such as at floor or ceiling levels) with windows, lighting, wall coverings, and signage.
- Specify appropriate finishes for open stairways, pedestrian bridges, seating areas, planters, and other transitional spaces that match finishes in adjacent spaces.
- Include glazing system materials or detailing that emits natural light, but prevents glare and light reflection.
- Design appropriate spaces for the unique requirements of plant species, including attention to lighting, temperature, and air flow. Specify plants with comfort levels similar to occupant comfort levels.
- Accommodate flexibility and storage of furniture and equipment for ceremonial events and exhibits.
- Design for maintainability of hard to reach areas, such as re-lamping of high light fixtures and periodic cleaning of dust gathering surfaces. Consider use of portable lifts over scaffolding.
- Design as an informal meeting space where intellectual/social exchange can take place.
- Specify durable finishes to accommodate maximum pedestrian traffic.
Atrium spaces can vary from simple to complex geometries. (See Atria Systems for more information.)
- Specify HVAC equipment that will ensure a comfortable and reliable temperature. For more information see WBDG High-Performance HVAC.
- If the atrium will be used for performances or ceremonies, study its acoustic properties and include sound absorptive materials as needed.
- Consider and plan for the use of technology for special events or large gatherings. This may include projection screens, audio video systems and monitors, speakers, etc.
- Provide for smoke control/Fire protection engineering requirements.
- In high-risk buildings, such as government or public assembly areas, incorporate blast-resistive design in atria structural system and glazing.
- Provide security measures such as surveillance cameras or security check points, especially if the space is used as a main entry or for large social gatherings.
- Design for safety in balconies overlooking atria:
- Glass railings can become dangerous as breaking/falling objects in terrorism or seismic event
- Design to prevent/discourage falls and suicide attempts
- Atria can be used as light courts. Utilize daylighting to reduce energy use through skylights and window walls.
- Coordinate the glazing patterns with sustainability goals and requirements for daylighting within green building rating systems.
- Plan for the maintenance of the glazing system so light levels do not get diminished and views are not obstructed.
- Create a vertical "chimney" effect with low intakes and high outlets to facilitate natural ventilation.
- Use durable materials as well as materials that meet sustainability requirements to reduce maintenance and provide a healthy interior environment.
The Bayfront Medical Plaza in St. Petersburg, Florida is an example of a two-sided atrium, a simple form which sits in the corner between two wings of a medical office building. See the case study on this project in Atria Systems.
The Burj Al Arab in Dubai has a 180 m (590 ft) tall atrium.
Relevant Codes and Standards
The following agencies and organizations have developed codes and standards affecting the design of atria. Note that the codes and standards are minimum requirements. Architects, engineers, and consultants should consider exceeding the applicable requirements whenever possible:
Educational Facilities, Federal Courthouse, Government Laboratory, Land Port of Entry, Office Building
Accessible—Provide Equal Access and Flexibility, Aesthetics—Understanding the Language and Elements of Design, Functional / Operational—Account for Functional Needs, Functional / Operational—Ensure Appropriate Product/Systems Integration, Productive—Assure Reliable Systems and Spaces, Productive—Provide Comfortable Environments, Secure / Safe—Occupant Safety and Health
Guides & Specifications
Building Envelope Design Guide
Delivery Teams—Select Appropriate Design Professionals