09 20 00: Plaster and Gypsum Board
Last updated: 06-04-2010
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In 1888, Augustine Sackett used plaster of Paris sandwiched between several layers of paper to produce what would eventually become "Sackett Board," the original gypsum board.
By the 1950s, many innovations in gypsum board technology had been developed, including the listing of many fire-resistance rated designs, rounded edges, specialized nails, curved partitions, studless partitions, sound control systems, lightweight gypsum lath, plaster, and gypsum board systems that fueled a boom period for the use of gypsum products in both the residential and commercial construction industries. By 1955, an estimated 50 percent of new homes were built using gypsum wallboard. Lightweight gypsum board systems permitted the use of lightweight steel in steel framed buildings, which enabled the widespread growth of high-rise residential and commercial construction during the 1960s and 1970s.
Today gypsum board, along with a variety of other gypsum panel products, continues to serve as a preferred building material in both residential and commercial construction for interior walls and ceilings, exterior sheathing, fire-resistant partitions and membranes, and liner material for elevator shafts and stairwells. These properties make gypsum board well suited for building and space types requiring cost-effectiveness as well as fire resistiveness and maintainability.
Gypsum is a common, naturally occurring, crystalline mineral found in sedimentary rock formations. Gypsum is also produced as a by-product of several industrial and manufacturing processes, the most common of which is flue-gas desulphurization of fossil fuel powered electrical generating plants, sometimes referred to as "synthetic gypsum." Both forms of gypsum are chemically the same—calcium sulfate dihydrate (CaSO4·2H2O). One hundred pounds of pure gypsum contains approximately 21 pounds of water chemically bound into the gypsum.
Courtesy of Association of The Wall and Ceiling Industry
Naturally occurring gypsum rock (gypsum ore) is either mined or quarried and then crushed and ground to a powder whereas synthetic gypsum is generally provided as a finely ground damp material. Heating the powdered gypsum to about 350°F drives off any free moisture and much of the chemically combined water, thereby reducing the level of hydration. This process is known as "calcination." The calcined gypsum, commonly known as "plaster of Paris" or "stucco" and chemically defined as calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CaSO4·1/2H2O), is the principal ingredient in gypsum plaster.
Gypsum board is produced by combining calcined gypsum with water and other additives to form a slurry that is fed between continuous layers of paper on a board machine. As this "continuous" gypsum board moves along the conveyer line the calcium sulfate hemihydrate recrystallizes (rehydrates) to its original (dihydrate) rock state. The paper becomes chemically and mechanically bonded to the gypsum core. The gypsum board is cut to length and dried in kilns to remove excess moisture. Gypsum board is often referred to as drywall, wallboard, or plasterboard and differs from other common building materials such as plywood, hardboard, and fiberboard because of its noncombustible gypsum core. Gypsum board is the most commonly specified and installed interior finish material for walls and ceilings in North America.
Technically, gypsum board is defined as the generic name for a family of sheet products consisting of a noncombustible core, primarily of gypsum, with a paper surfacing on the face, back, and long edges. In recent years the family of gypsum-based panel materials has grown to include panel products other than those with the familiar paper facers. A number of specialized gypsum panel products and gypsum boards have been developed for specific uses which include:
- Gypsum Wallboard for interior walls and ceilings
- Gypsum Ceiling Board for interior ceilings
- Type X Gypsum Board for fire-resistance-rated building systems
- Fiber Reinforced Gypsum Panels for interior and exterior walls, ceilings, and tile base
- Gypsum Sheathing for exterior walls and roof systems
- Glass Mat Gypsum Substrate for use as sheathing on exterior walls and ceilings
- Gypsum Soffit Board for use on exterior soffits and ceilings
- Water-Resistant Gypsum Backing Board for use as a tile base
- Glass Mat Water-Resistant Gypsum Backing Board for use as a tile base
- Gypsum Backing Board for use as a base for multi-ply systems
- Gypsum Lath for use as a base for gypsum plaster
- Gypsum Plaster Base for use as a base for veneer plaster
- Gypsum Shaft Liner Board for shaft, stairway, and duct enclosures
- Pre-decorated Gypsum Board for accent walls, office and movable partitions
- Foil backed gypsum board for use as a vapor retarder
Gypsum board systems with joints and fasteners finished with joint treatment material are designed to provide monolithic surfaces ready for decoration with paint, wallpaper, or other final decoration. Gypsum board wall and ceiling systems provide many outstanding advantages not available with other common interior finish materials:
- Fire Resistance (see WBDG Secure/Safe—Plan for Fire Protection)
- Sound Isolation (See WBDG Productive—Provide Comfortable Environments)
- Serviceability (See WBDG Sustainable—Optimize Operational and Maintenance Practices)
- Economy (See WBDG Cost Effective)
- Versatility/Flexibility (See WBDG Accessible—Plan for Flexibility: Be Proactive)
- Environmentally Friendly (See WBDG Sustainable)
Gypsum board is a high quality fire-resistive building material. It is the interior finish material of choice where fire-resistance ratings and low flame spread properties are required. When gypsum board is exposed to the elevated temperatures of a fire, the chemically combined water in its noncombustible gypsum core is released as steam, effectively retarding heat transfer. Even after complete calcination, when all the water has been released, the calcined gypsum continues to act as a barrier to heat and flame. Gypsum board is commonly specified for wall and ceiling finishes in buildings required to be of noncombustible or fire resistive construction. Gypsum board also has low flame spread and low smoke developed indexes making it one of the most fire-safe interior finish materials available today.
Preventing or minimizing the transmission of unwanted sound to and from adjoining rooms or from the outdoors is a prime consideration during the design phase of a building. Sound rated gypsum board wall and ceiling systems use single-layer and multi-layer applications to achieve specific Sound Transmission Class (STC) ratings and are key components in the effective control of sound transmission.
Gypsum board is used to construct strong, high-quality walls and ceilings with excellent dimensional stability and durability. Surfaces covered with gypsum board are easily redecorated and refinished as occupants and occupancies change and as decorating trends evolve.
Gypsum board is a minor factor in the overall cost of a building; it is readily available and easy to apply. Both gypsum wallboard and pre-decorated gypsum board are installed at relatively low cost when compared to other materials used in fire-resistive systems or as interior finishes. When pre-decorated gypsum board is used, further decoration is unnecessary.
Gypsum board satisfies a wide range of architectural requirements for design and code compliance. Ease and speed of application, performance, availability, ease of repair, and adaptability to all forms of decoration combine to make gypsum board unmatched by any other interior finish material.
The North American gypsum industry has developed a responsible and environmentally conscious attitude toward issues of reclamation, preservation of natural resources, recycling and waste management, and otherwise protecting the environment. The industry has used recycled paper to manufacture gypsum board for nearly half a century. Over 90% of gypsum board paper used is from recycled materials. The gypsum industry increasingly uses "synthetic" gypsum to manufacture gypsum board. This raw material is a by-product, or waste material, from other manufacturing processes as well as the desulphurization of flue gases in fossil fuel power plants. By using what would otherwise be waste products, the gypsum industry reduces the stream of solid wastes going to landfills and at the same time extends natural gypsum reserves.
Application of Gypsum Board
A wide variety of gypsum board application methods are available to meet virtually any need in building design and construction. Gypsum board is applied in either single-layer or multi-layer systems to achieve specific fire or sound ratings. Gypsum board is applied over wood or steel framing or furring. It is also applied to masonry or concrete surfaces, either laminated directly or attached to wood furring strips or steel furring channels. Gypsum board ceilings can be directly attached to joists or trusses or attached to furring or grid systems suspended below structural members.
However, even the best gypsum board application cannot compensate for an inadequate or unsatisfactory substrate, or for extreme environmental conditions. Gypsum board will not straighten warped or twisted framing, nor will it smooth uneven masonry or concrete surfaces. The quality of gypsum board applications is largely dependent on the accurate alignment of the framing or furring to which the gypsum board is attached. Before application of the gypsum board begins, the framing or furring to which it is to be attached should be inspected for straightness, stability, and alignment. Warped or twisted wood framing or furring, or bent steel framing or furring, may cause joints to be misaligned or fasteners to pop and should be repaired or replaced. Green lumber or wood containing excessive moisture, over 15%, can result in fastener pops, joint misalignment, and cracking from warping or twisting as the wood dries.
Courtesy of Gypsum Association
All ends and edges of gypsum board except those oriented at right angles to framing members or furring should be located over framing members or other solid backing. Gypsum board is generally attached to the framing with nails, screws, or staples. Although nails are commonly used in wood frame construction, screws are often preferred because they are applied with automatic screw guns, have excellent holding power, and reduce the possibility of nail pops. A combination of nails and screws may also be used, with nails along edges and screws in the field. Staples are used because they are economical and can be quickly applied with staple guns; however, the use of staples should be limited to the base-layer in multi-layer systems or to gypsum sheathing on wood framing.
Gypsum board wall and ceiling surfaces are typically decorated with paint, texture, wallpaper, tile, or paneling. When pre-decorated gypsum board is used, joints are generally covered with matching molding or battens; no additional finishing or decoration is necessary.
Single-layer gypsum board applications are the most common in light commercial and in residential construction. These systems rely on one layer of gypsum board attached to framing or furring. Although single-layer gypsum board systems are generally adequate to meet most minimum requirements for fire resistance and sound control, multi-layer systems are preferred for higher quality construction and to upgrade beyond the "bare minimums" of many code requirements.
Multi-layer systems have two or more layers of gypsum board and are used to meet higher sound and fire resistance requirements or to enhance these comfort and safety qualities beyond minimum code requirements. They also provide better surface quality because face layers can often be laminated over base layers eliminating many or all of the fasteners in the face layer. In addition, face-layer joints are stronger by virtue of the continuous backing provided by the base layers. Nail pops and ridging are less frequent and imperfectly aligned framing has less effect on the quality of the finished surface.
Mold and Moisture Dynamics has grown as an increasingly important design and specification concern with interior materials that have absorptive characteristics and are prone to mould and mildew problems. Materials such as interior fabrics, wood, carpets and paper based products—like gypsum board—must be properly installed, finished, and provided with adequately designed and operated climate control systems to avoid these problems.
As of December 1, 2004, a single ASTM International reference standard, ASTM C1396/C1396M-04, Standard Specification for Gypsum Board, has replaced eight standards previously used to designate specific gypsum board products employed in commercial and residential construction. No technical changes have been made to the individual specifications incorporated into C1396, which was established to avoid inadvertent inconsistencies in the requirements of individual products due to staggered document revision schedules.
Incorporated into the new ASTM C1396 Standard Specification for Gypsum Board are:
- C36/C36M-03e1 Standard Specification for Gypsum Wallboard (Withdrawn 2005) This specification covers gypsum wallboard which is designed to be used for walls, ceilings, or partitions and affords a surface suitable to receive decoration. Formerly under the jurisdiction of Committee C11 on Gypsum and Related Building Materials and Systems, this specification was withdrawn in December 2004 and replaced by Specification C1396/C1396M for Gypsum Board.
- C37/C37M-01e1 Standard Specification for Gypsum Lath (Withdrawn 2005) This specification covers plain and foil-backed types of gypsum lath which are designed to be used as a base for application of gypsum plaster. Formerly under the jurisdiction of Committee C11 on Gypsum and Related Building Materials and Systems, this specification was withdrawn in December 2004 and replaced by Specification C1396/C1396M for Gypsum Board.
- C79/C79M-04a Standard Specification for Gypsum Sheathing Board (Withdrawn 2005) This specification covers gypsum sheathing with a water-resistant core, which is designed to be used as a sheathing on buildings. Formerly under the jurisdiction of Committee C11 on Gypsum and Related Building Materials and Systems, this specification was withdrawn in December 2004 and replaced by Specification C1396/C1396M for Gypsum Board.
- C442/C442M-04e1 Standard Specification for Gypsum Backing Board, Gypsum Coreboard, and Gypsum Shaftliner Board (Withdrawn 2005) This specification covers gypsum board designed to be used as a base in multilayer systems, as a gypsum stud or core in semi-solid or solid gypsum board partitions, or in shaftwall assemblies. Formerly under the jurisdiction of Committee C11 on Gypsum and Related Building Materials and Systems, this specification was withdrawn in December 2004 and replaced by Specification C1396/C1396M for Gypsum Board.
- C630/C630M-03e1 Standard Specification for Water-Resistant Gypsum Backing Board (Withdrawn 2005) This specification covers water-resistant gypsum backing board that is designed primarily to be used as a base for the application of ceramic or plastic tile on walls or ceilings. This product is also suitable for decoration. Formerly under the jurisdiction of Committee C11 on Gypsum and Related Building Materials and Systems, this specification was withdrawn in December 2004 and replaced by Specification C1396/C1396M for Gypsum Board.
- C931/C931M-04e1 Standard Specification for Exterior Gypsum Soffit Board (Withdrawn 2005) This specification covers exterior gypsum soffit board, designed to be used for exterior soffits and carport ceilings that are completely protected from contact with liquid water. Formerly under the jurisdiction of Committee C11 on Gypsum and Related Building Materials and Systems, this specification was withdrawn in December 2004 and replaced by Specification C1396/C1396M for Gypsum Board.
- C960/C960M-04 Standard Specification for Pre-decorated Gypsum Board (Withdrawn 2005) This specification covers pre-decorated gypsum board which is designed to be used as the finished surface for walls or ceilings. Formerly under the jurisdiction of Committee C11 on Gypsum and Related Building Materials and Systems, this specification was withdrawn in December 2004 and replaced by Specification C1396/C1396M for Gypsum Board.
- C1395/C1395M-04e1 Specification for Gypsum Ceiling Board (Withdrawn 2005) This specification covers 1/2 in. [12.7 mm] thick gypsum ceiling board designed for use on interior ceilings with framing spaced not more than 24 in. [610 mm] on center and that affords a surface suitable to receive water-based texture and other decoration. This product is also suitable for use on interior walls. Formerly under the jurisdiction of Committee C11 on Gypsum and Related Building Materials and Systems, this specification was withdrawn in December 2004 and replaced by Specification C1396/C1396M for Gypsum Board.
To facilitate a smooth transition from the old standards to the new, all-encompassing standard, the gypsum industry agreed in 1999 on a five-year phase-in period during which product labels and literature would project both the new standard and the original product specifications.
Now that the individual product standards have been withdrawn and replaced with a single standard, C1396, the building codes may soon reflect this change. Design professionals should make sure that their specifications use the C1396 designation instead of the previous standards so that they are in compliance with both industry standards and code language.
Relevant Codes and Standards
- Department of Defense (DoD) Unified Facilities Guide Specifications (UFGS)
- Department of Veterans Affairs (VA)
- Green Construction Specs
ICC—ES Evaluation Reports for Gypsum Board Materials
The Gypsum Association has received confirmation from ICC Evaluation Service, Inc. (ICC-ES) that Evaluation Report ESR-1338 (Gypsum Wall and Ceiling Assemblies) has been issued with an effective date of June 1, 2004,. This report describes requirements for fire-resistance- and sound- rated wall, floor-ceiling, and roof-ceiling assemblies composed of water-resistant gypsum backing board, gypsum wallboard, exterior soffit board, sheathing board, gypsum backing board and core board, or gypsum base for veneer plasters. ESR-1338 replaces ICBO-ES Report ER-1632, and also will be subject to re-examination in one year.
Of specific significance in this new report is language that allows the systems contained in the current edition (17th) of the Gypsum Association's publication GA-600-2003, Fire Resistance Design Manual, (FRDM) to be used to create fire-resistance-rated floor-ceiling, roof/ceiling, or wall assemblies. Previous evaluation reports had not kept pace with the most current edition of the FRDM and often made reference to outdated editions of the manual.
- C475/C475M-02 Standard Specification for Joint Compound and Joint Tape for Finishing Gypsum Board by ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2002.—A specification covering all-purpose, taping and finishing joint compounds, paper joint tape and glass-mesh joint tape.
- C588/C588M-03e1 Standard Specification for Gypsum Base for Veneer Plasters by ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2003.—A specification covering types of gypsum base that are used as a base for application of veneer plaster.
- C840-04a Standard Specification for Application and Finishing of Gypsum Board by ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2004.—A specification covering the minimum requirements for the methods of application and finishing of gypsum board, including related items and accessories.
- C843-99e1 Standard Specification for Application of Gypsum Veneer Plaster by ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 1999.—A specification covers the minimum requirements for and methods of applying gypsum veneer plaster.
- C844-04 Standard Specification for Application of Gypsum Base to Receive Gypsum Veneer Plaster by ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2004.—A specification covering the minimum requirements for, and methods of, application of gypsum veneer base for gypsum veneer plasters.
- C1177/C1177M-04e1 Standard Specification for Glass Mat Gypsum Substrate for Use as Sheathing by ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2004.—A specification covering glass mat gypsum substrate, which is used as an exterior substrate for a weather barrier.
- C1178/C1178M-04e1 Standard Specification for Glass Mat Water-Resistant Gypsum Backing Panel by ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2004.—A specification covering glass mat water-resistant gypsum backing panel designed for use on ceilings and walls in bath and shower areas as a base for the application of ceramic or plastic tile.
- C1278/C1278M-03e1 Standard Specification for Fiber-Reinforced Gypsum Panel by ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2003.—A specification covering fiber-reinforced gypsum panels, including sections:
- 1.1.1 Interior Fiber-Reinforced Gypsum Panels, designed to be used for walls, ceilings, or partitions and affords a suitable surface to receive decoration.
- 1.1.2 Water Resistant Fiber-Reinforced Gypsum Backing Panels, designed primarily to be used as a base for the application of ceramic or plastic tile on walls or ceilings. This product is also suitable for decoration.
- 1.1.3 Exterior Fiber-Reinforced Gypsum Soffit Panels, designed for use on exterior soffits and carport ceilings that are completely protected from contact with liquid water.
- 1.1.4 Water Resistant Exterior Fiber-Reinforced Gypsum Sheathing Panels, designed for use as sheathing on buildings.
- C1280-04 Standard Specification for Application of Gypsum Sheathing by ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2004.—A specification covering the minimum requirements for and methods of application of gypsum sheathing for use as a substrate for exterior wall cladding.
- C1396/C1396M-04 Standard Specification for Gypsum Board by ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2004.—A specification covering types of gypsum boards, including sections:
- 1.1.1 Gypsum wallboard, designed for use on walls, ceilings, or partitions and that affords a surface suitable to receive decoration.
- 1.1.2 Pre-decorated gypsum board, designed for use as the finished surfacing for walls, ceilings, or partitions.
- 1.1.3 Gypsum backing board, coreboard, and shaftliner board, designed for use as a base in multilayer systems or as a gypsum stud or core in semisolid or solid gypsum board partitions, or in shaft wall assemblies.
- 1.1.4 Water-resistant gypsum backing board, designed for use as a base for the application of ceramic or plastic tile on walls or ceilings. This product is also suitable for decoration.
- 1.1.5 Exterior gypsum soffit board, designed for use on exterior soffits and carport ceilings that are completely protected from contact with liquid water.
- 1.1.6 Gypsum sheathing board, designed for use as sheathing on buildings.
- 1.1.7 Gypsum base for veneer plaster designed for use as a base for the application of gypsum veneer plaster.
- 1.1.8 Gypsum lath, designed for use as a base for the application of gypsum plaster.
- 1.1.9 Gypsum ceiling board, designed for use on interior ceilings with framing spaced not more than 24 in. [610 mm] on center and that affords a surface suitable to receive water-based texture and other decoration. This product is also suitable for use on interior walls.
Association of the Wall and Ceiling Industry (AWCI) Publications
- Recommended Guide for Methods of Gypsum Board Attachment - 103 by the Association of the Wall and Ceiling Industries, Falls Church, VA, 1996.—Summarizes 13 ways gypsum board may be attached to different substrates, presenting pros and cons of each attachment technique, using both a verbal and a pictorial format, allowing for an easy comparison of the available methods. An excellent document for explaining fastener spacing requirements for nail and screw attachment. 1996. 8 pp. Illustrated. Item # 103
- Technical Manual No. 11: Guide for the Finishing of Gypsum Board - 102 by the Association of the Wall and Ceiling Industries, Falls Church, VA, 1995.—A practical guide for finishing gypsum board, recommended for use as a supplement to ASTM C 840, Application and Finishing of Gypsum Board, and GA-216, Recommended Specifications for the Application and Finishing of Gypsum Board. It brings together the basic principles and methods employed in finishing gypsum board in an easy-to-read and concise format. 1995. 20 pp. Item # 102
- Technical Manual No. 14: Site Conditions for the Installation of Gypsum Board - 104 by the Association of the Wall and Ceiling Industries, Falls Church, VA, 1998.—This 10-page pamphlet discusses proper practices for the jobsite that promote efficiency, productivity and safety, and reduce waste, downtime and misunderstandings between project parties. Topics include stocking of material, protection of installed gypsum board, removal of debris and waste, construction site safety and general working conditions. Also discussed are excessive humidity and lighting conditions - must-have for all aspects of drywall installation, from receiving the delivery to proper conditions for the final inspection. 1998. 12 pp. Item # 104
- Technical Manual 17: The Design of Head-of-Wall Fire-Restrictive Joints - 126 by the Association of the Wall and Ceiling Industries, Falls Church, VA.—An 11-page, pocket-size manual explaining the how, what, where, why, and the most recent code changes for head-of-wall fire-resistive connections. Intended for the design professional, contractor, and building official, it promotes realistic application and inspection of head-of-wall fire-resistive joints in the field. Item # 126
Gypsum Association Publications
- GA-600-03, Fire Resistance Design Manual by the Gypsum Association, Washington, DC, 2003. The 17th edition of this industry standard includes fire-resistance ratings for over 325 gypsum-protected wall, ceiling, roof, column, beam, girder, and truss systems, including many systems not in the previous editions. Allows the user to quickly and easily determine essential characteristics of a wide range of fire-resistive gypsum systems classified according to use and fire resistance. STC and IIC ratings for numerous systems are also included. The latest edition includes new 2-hour wood- and steel-frame floor/ceiling systems, and new wood I-joist floor/ceiling and 100% load-bearing partition systems.
- GA-214-96, Recommended Levels of Gypsum Board Finish by the Gypsum Association, Washington, DC, 1996.—This publication assists specifiers, owners, and contractors to precisely describe the desired finish of individual walls and ceilings to meet specific needs.
- GA-216-04, Application and Finishing Of Gypsum Panel Products by the Gypsum Association, Washington, DC, 2004.—Describes the most up-to-date industry recommendations for the proper installation and finishing of gypsum board, including related accessories, over a variety of substrates and framing. An invaluable resource for owners, specifiers, installers, and code officials. The drywall hanger's bible.
- GA-221-00, Repair of Gypsum Board Joint Ridging by the Gypsum Association, Washington, DC, 2000.—Describes the symptoms, causes, and repair methods for joint ridging in gypsum board surfaces.
- GA-222-96, Repairing Screw or Nail Pops In Gypsum Board Surfaces by the Gypsum Association, Washington, DC, 1996.—Describes the symptoms, causes, and repair methods for fastener pops in gypsum board surfaces.
- GA-223-04, Gypsum Panel Products Types, Uses, Sizes, and Standards by the Gypsum Association, Washington, DC, 2004.—Gives typical uses of, and the ASTM and CSA standards for, each type of gypsum board. Also included is the appropriate industry standard designation for the installation of each type of gypsum board, along with the sizes and thicknesses generally available.
- GA-224-97, Installation of Pre-decorated Gypsum Board by the Gypsum Association, Washington, DC, 1997.—A companion to the popular Application and Finishing of Gypsum Board (GA-216-2000), this specification covers the minimum requirements for the installation of pre-decorated gypsum board.
- GA-225-96, Repair of Fire-Rated Gypsum Board Systems by the Gypsum Association, Washington, DC, 1996.—The industry's latest recommendations for repairing damaged fire- resistance rated gypsum systems. Discusses everything from patching a small hole to full-scale replacement of large damaged areas.
- GA-226-96, Application of Gypsum Board to Form Curved Surfaces by the Gypsum Association, Washington, DC, 1996.—Describes special application methods used to install gypsum board on curved wall or ceiling surfaces.
- GA-229-96, Shear Values for Screw Application of Gypsum Board on Walls by the Gypsum Association, Washington, DC, 1996.—Technical data sheet listing shear values developed for various thicknesses of gypsum board screw-attached to wood framing under varying conditions of gypsum board orientation and screw spacing.
- GA-234-98, Control Joints for Fire-Resistance Rated Systems by the Gypsum Association, Washington, DC, 1998.—Up-to-date recommendations addressing special uses of control joints. Illustrates control joint usage in 1- and 2-hour fire ratings for wood-framed and metal-framed systems.
- GA-235-05, Gypsum Board Typical Mechanical and Physical Properties by the Gypsum Association, Washington, DC, 2001.—A useful reference for architects and engineers - especially at the project design stage. Contains values for flexural strength; effective stiffness; effective modulus of rupture (MOR); core, end, and edge hardness; compressive strength; impact resistance; nail pull resistance; negative wind load resistance; humidified deflection; water absorption; surface water absorption; thermal coefficient of linear expansion; hygrometric coefficient of expansion; surface burning characteristics; noncombustibility; potential heat; thermal properties; weight per unit area; and permeance.
- GA-236-00, Joint Treatment under Extreme Weather Conditions by the Gypsum Association, Washington, DC, 2000.—A two-page reference guide for the application and drying of joint compounds and adhesives in extreme weather conditions.
- GA-253-99, Application of Gypsum Sheathing by the Gypsum Association, Washington, DC, 1999.—Describes the industry's recommendations for handling, storing, and installing gypsum sheathing under a variety of conditions. A must for properly hanging gypsum sheathing and EIFS work.
- GA-254-04, Fire-Resistant Gypsum Sheathing by the Gypsum Association, Washington, DC, 2004.—An illustrated brochure describing the advantages, recommended uses, limitations, and properties of gypsum sheathing in exterior walls.
- GA-276-05, Gypsum Board Roof Underlayment for Multi-Family Construction by the Gypsum Association, Washington, DC, 1997.—Design without parapets with this guide for using gypsum board as a roofing substrate to protect combustible roof sheathing and coverings from interior fires.
- GA-610-02, Fire Resistance Provided By Gypsum Board Membrane Protection by the Gypsum Association, Washington, DC, 2002.—Guidelines for specifying fire resistance rated wall and ceiling membrane systems. Particularly useful in retrofit applications with limited access or non-standard ceiling framing.
- GA-618-04, Building and Inspecting Smoke Barriers by the Gypsum Association, Washington, DC, 2004.—Learn how to comply with code requirements for smoke enclosures with this descriptive information. Contains the fundamentals behind smoke enclosure design, construction, and inspection.
Trade Associations and other Organizations
- Association of the Wall and Ceiling Industry (AWCI)—Provides services and undertake activities that enhance the members' ability to operate a successful business. AWCI represents acoustics systems, ceiling systems, drywall systems, exterior insulation and finishing systems, fireproofing, flooring systems, insulation, and stucco contractors, suppliers and manufacturers, and allied trades.
- ASTM International (ASTM)—Provides a global forum for the development and publication of voluntary consensus standards for materials, products, systems, and services. In over 130 varied industry areas, ASTM standards serve as the basis for manufacturing, procurement, and regulatory activities. Provides standards that are accepted and used in research and development, product testing, quality systems, and commercial transactions around the globe.
- Ceilings and Interior Systems Construction Association (CISCA)—Association for the advancement interior commercial construction, providing education, technical guidance and related resources. CISCA membership includes over 600 of the leading contractors, distributors, manufacturers and independent manufacturer's representatives worldwide.
- Gypsum Association (GA)—Founded in 1930, GA promotes the use of gypsum while advancing the development, growth, and general welfare of the gypsum industry in the United States and Canada on behalf of its member companies.
- ICC Evaluation Service (ICC-ES)—Provides technical evaluations of building products, components, methods, and materials and issues reports on code compliance to building regulators, contractors, specifiers, architects, engineers, and the public.